# 11.1 Sorting algorithms¶

__Sorting algorithms (sorting algorithm)__ are used to arrange a set of data in a specific order. Sorting algorithms have a wide range of applications because ordered data can usually be searched, analyzed, and processed more efficiently.

As shown in Figure 11-1, the data types in sorting algorithms can be integers, floating point numbers, characters, or strings, etc. Sorting rules can be set according to needs, such as numerical size, character ASCII order, or custom rules.

Figure 11-1 Data types and comparator examples

## 11.1.1 Evaluation dimensions¶

**Execution efficiency**: We expect the time complexity of sorting algorithms to be as low as possible, with a lower number of overall operations (reduction in the constant factor of time complexity). For large data volumes, execution efficiency is particularly important.

**In-place property**: As the name implies, __in-place sorting__ is achieved by directly manipulating the original array, without the need for additional auxiliary arrays, thus saving memory. Generally, in-place sorting involves fewer data movement operations and is faster.

**Stability**: __Stable sorting__ ensures that the relative order of equal elements in the array does not change after sorting.

Stable sorting is a necessary condition for multi-level sorting scenarios. Suppose we have a table storing student information, with the first and second columns being name and age, respectively. In this case, __unstable sorting__ might lead to a loss of orderedness in the input data:

```
# Input data is sorted by name
# (name, age)
('A', 19)
('B', 18)
('C', 21)
('D', 19)
('E', 23)
# Assuming an unstable sorting algorithm is used to sort the list by age,
# the result changes the relative position of ('D', 19) and ('A', 19),
# and the property of the input data being sorted by name is lost
('B', 18)
('D', 19)
('A', 19)
('C', 21)
('E', 23)
```

**Adaptability**: __Adaptive sorting__ leverages existing order information within the input data to reduce computational effort, achieving more optimal time efficiency. The best-case time complexity of adaptive sorting algorithms is typically better than their average-case time complexity.

**Comparison-based**: __Comparison-based sorting__ relies on comparison operators (\(<\), \(=\), \(>\)) to determine the relative order of elements and thus sort the entire array, with the theoretical optimal time complexity being \(O(n \log n)\). Meanwhile, __non-comparison sorting__ does not use comparison operators and can achieve a time complexity of \(O(n)\), but its versatility is relatively poor.

## 11.1.2 Ideal sorting algorithm¶

**Fast execution, in-place, stable, adaptive, and versatile**. Clearly, no sorting algorithm that combines all these features has been found to date. Therefore, when selecting a sorting algorithm, it is necessary to decide based on the specific characteristics of the data and the requirements of the problem.

Next, we will learn about various sorting algorithms together and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each based on the above evaluation dimensions.